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All cells require inorganic sulfate for normal function. Sulfate is among the most important macronutrients in cells and is the fourth most abundant anion in human plasma (300 μM). Sulfate is the major sulfur source in many organisms, and because it is a hydrophilic anion that cannot passively cross the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, all cells require a mechanism for sulfate influx and efflux to ensure an optimal supply of sulfate in the body. The class of proteins involved in moving sulfate into or out of cells is called sulfate transporters. And there are various of Sulfate may needed in our life, such as Potassium Sulphate, Magnesium Sulphate, Zinc Sulphate, Ammonium Sulphate, Manganese Sulphate, Ferrous Sulphate, Copper Sulphate, Diammonium Phosphate, Monoammonium Phosphate, Monopotassium Phosphate and so on.
To date, numerous sulfate transporters have been identified in tissues and cells from many origins. These include the renal sulfate transporters NaSi-1 and sat-1, the ubiquitously expressed diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter DTDST, the intestinal sulfate transporter DRA that is linked to congenital chloride diarrhea, and the erythrocyte anion exchanger AE1. These transporters have only been isolated in the last 10–15 years, and their physiological roles and contributions to body sulfate homeostasis are just now beginning to be determined. This review focuses on the structural and functional properties of mammalian sulfate transporters and highlights some of regulatory mechanisms that control their expression in vivo, under normal physiological and pathophysiological states.
Sulphate contributes to numerous processes in mammalian physiology, particularly during development. Sulphotransferases mediate the sulphate conjugation (sulphonation) of numerous compounds, including steroids, glycosaminoglycans, proteins, neurotransmitters and xenobiotics, transforming their biological activities. Importantly, the ratio of sulphonated to unconjugated molecules plays a significant physiological role in many of the molecular events that regulate mammalian growth and development.