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A puzzle is a game, problem, or toy that tests a person's ingenuity or knowledge. In a puzzle, the solver is expected to put pieces together in a logical way, in order to arrive at the correct or fun solution of the puzzle. There are different genres of puzzles, such as crossword puzzles, word-search puzzles, number puzzles, relational puzzles, and logic puzzles. The academic study of puzzles is called enigmatology. Puzzles are often created to be a form of entertainment but they can also arise from serious mathematical or logical problems. In such cases, their solution may be a significant contribution to mathematical research.
There are several categories of puzzles, such as one-sided puzzles: the pictures of the puzzles are mostly based on natural scenery, buildings and some familiar patterns. Castles and mountains are two traditional themes, but any drawings and images can be used as a puzzle material. There are some companies that also offer services for making puzzles of private photography; Double-sided puzzles: There are other types of puzzles that have patterns printed on both sides of the pieces. Players can make groups according to the patterns on any side. At the same time, the difficulty of the game is also increased, because as far as the pieces in the hand are concerned, it is difficult for players to determine which side is the correct side; 3D puzzles: In addition to the traditional flat puzzles, there are different kinds of 3D puzzles. The pieces of the three-dimensional puzzle are mostly made of more solid materials such as wood or foam. Its spatial characteristics often lead to an increase in difficulty, requiring players to splicing pieces in a specific order: if the completed parts are improperly assembled, the remaining pieces may not be able to continue to be spliced. Another type of toy known as a "puzzle box" is also common: players can assemble small drawers or boxes with items in the middle from interlocking parts that resemble pieces of a flat-panel puzzle. Mechanical puzzles or dexterity puzzles such as the Rubik's Cube and Soma cube can be stimulating toys for children or recreational activities for adults.
Solutions of puzzles often require the recognition of patterns and the adherence to a particular kind of ordering. People with a high level of inductive reasoning aptitude may be better at solving such puzzles than others. But puzzles based upon inquiry and discovery may be solved more easily by those with good deduction skills. Deductive reasoning improves with practice. Mathematical puzzles often involve BODMAS. BODMAS is an acronym and it stands for Bracket, Of, Division, Multiplication, Addition and Subtraction. In certain regions, PEMDAS (Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition and Subtraction) is the synonym of BODMAS. It explains the order of operations to solve an expression. Some mathematical puzzles require Top to Bottom convention to avoid the ambiguity in the order of operations. It is an elegantly simple idea that relies, as sudoku does, on the requirement that numbers appear only once starting from top to bottom as coming along.