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One of the most important steps in endodontic procedures is mechanical cleaning and irrigation of the root canal system. The main goal is to mechanically clean the debris from the canal walls and to wash it out of the canals. For mechanical cleaning different types of files can be used, rotary or hand files, made out of stainless steel or Nickel-Titanium. Intensive development of endodontic starts in the mid of 18th century, with intensive progress through the 19th century. During this period dentists and scientists from all over the world explored different opportunities for saving the inflamed tooth by preserving the pulp tissue or removing it from the tooth in order the save the one. First, the stainless-steel hand files were used for removing the pulp and debris from the canal system. Several techniques were introduced by well-known doctor Schilder: crown-down, step-back and balance-forced technique. These techniques are still learned in dental schools around the Globe, as fundamentals of endodontics, and many dentists still use only these techniques with great success.
There are many classifications of endodontic files like Exploring files, Extirpating files, Enlarging files (for cleaning and shaping), Filling files, Niti Rotary Files, Root Canal Files, Veterinary Dental Files, etc.
Exploring files are usually intended for locating and shaping the orifices or removing the calcifications from the pulp chamber. Besides these files, some drills so as specifically designed endo-openers can be used for this purpose. It is important to mention that contemporary endodontics often uses ultrasonic devices with specially designed endo-tips. Different tips are used for detection of orifices, removing the calculus from the pulp chamber, removing metal posts from the canals, irrigation, or even cleaning sclerosed canals. Some tips are intended for endodontic surgeries in the sense of periradicular surgeries, mainly for retrograde closure of obturated canals that cannot be treated by conventional endodontic treatment.
Except that, there are also other dental tools are needed during the dental treatment such as Dental Burs including Diamond Burs and Tungsten Carbide Burs, Dental Drills, Dental Gutta Percha, Dental Paper Point, etc.