What are slip rings and why do some motors use them? Professionalمنذ 9 أشهر - Automobiles - Mazouna - 197 الآراء
Slip Rings — also referred to as rotary electrical joints, electric swivels, and collector rings — are devices that can transmit power, electrical signals, or data between a stationary component and a rotating component. The design of a slip ring will depend on its application — transmitting data, for example, requires a slip ring with higher bandwidth and better EMI (electromagnetic interference) mitigation than one that transmits power — but the basic components are a rotating ring and stationary brushes.
In a version of the AC induction motor referred to as a wound rotor motor, slip rings are used not for transferring power, but for inserting resistance into the rotor windings. A wound rotor motor uses three slip rings — typically made of copper or a copper alloy — mounted to (but insulated from) the motor shaft. Each slip ring is connected to one of the three phases of rotor windings. The slip ring brushes, made of graphite, are connected to a resistive device, such as a rheostat. As the slip rings turn with the rotor, the brushes maintain constant contact with the rings and transfer the resistance to the rotor windings. Adding resistance to the rotor windings brings the rotor current more in-phase with the stator current. (Recall that wound rotor motors are a type of asynchronous motor, in which the rotor and stator electrical fields rotate at different speeds) The result is higher torque production with relatively low current. The slip rings are only used at start-up, however, due to their lower efficiency and drop-off of torque at full running speed. As the motor reaches its operating speed, the Capsule Slip Rings are shorted out and the brushes lose contact, so the motor then acts like a standard AC induction (aka “squirrel cage”) motor.
Slip ring or commutator?
You may have noticed that the design and function of a slip ring sounds very similar to that of a commutator. While there are similarities between the two, there are critical distinctions between slip rings and commutators. Physically, a slip ring is a continuous ring, whereas a commutator is segmented. Functionally, slip rings provide a continuous transfer of power, signals, or data. Specifically, in AC motors, they transfer resistance to the rotor windings.